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muhammad bin tughlaq achievements

Their accounts helped the audit in the office of the A broad road was constructed for convenience. But after successfully transferring the capital he gave up the idea of decorating this new city like his other plans, even this city was left half finished. [10], Robert Sewell quotes from visitor accounts atrocities during the rule of Muhammad bin Tughluq, he ordered the massacre of all the inhabitants of the Hindu city of Kanauj. A controversial ruler with a unique streak of intellectual creativity, Muhammad bin Tughlaq was one of the few SUBMITTED TO: 2. In it also there is beautiful use of red-stones and marble. A regular postal service was established between Delhi and Daulatabad. Muhammad bin Tughlaq himself had spent a number of years as a prince on campaign in the southern states during the reign of his father. Firoz Shah Tughlaq was very fond of architecture. Khidki Mosque is square in shape and to add to its strength there are four reclining ‘Burz’ in all its four corners, in Begampuri mosque there is artistic use of marble. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, the Delhi Sultanate’s empire was the most elaborate. In his reign, he conquered Warangal (in present-day Telangana, India) Malabar and Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian state of Karnataka. He ruled up to 1351. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq ascended the throne just three days after the sudden death of his father, Giyasuddin Tughlaq. MUHAMMAD-BIN- TUGHLUQ Ghiyas-ud-Din Tughluq or Ghazi Malik was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. On the stone walls a layer of granite was done which became black with the passes of time. One of his generals would go on to form the Bahmani kingdom in the Deccan. He was the son of Turk Ghiyas-ud-din, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji rule in Delhi, and succeeded his father upon his death. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features The area of Firozshah Kotla is double that of Shahjananabad. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-51): Also called Jauna Khan. It is said that after transferring his capital to Daulatabad, Muhammad Tughlaq constructed a new city ‘Jahan Panah’ between Rai Pithora and Siri. Muhammad bin Tughluq (reigned 1325-1351) was a medieval Indian ruler whose reign saw the beginning of the disintegration of the empire of Delhi. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most interesting personalities of Medieval Indian history. Therefore, he decided to disperse and dissolve the soldiers in 1329. He invited nobles and leaders from these regions and gave them grants. Ibn Battuta has also written that he depended on his own judgment and rarely took advice from others and has also criticized him for his giving of excessive gifts and "harsh punishments". He was promoted as “master of the horse” by Sultan Mubarak Shah Khalji. This tomb is locally known as ‘Lai Gumbad.’ Except above important buildings, many hunting places for Sultan were built. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. The fortifications were two yards in thickness and were constructed of rough rubble in lime. November 16, 2020 Last Update February 28, 2020 6:55 am Bengaluru He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. Such exaggerated accounts simply imply that Delhi suffered a downfall in its stature and trade. Mohammad Tughlaq constructed the cities of Firozabad, Fatehabad, Hissar, Jaunpur etc. In 1329, his mother also went to Daulatabad, accompanied by the nobles. A short description of some main buildings constructed by Firoz Shah Tughlaq is given below: Mohammad Tughlaq constructed the cities of Firozabad, Fatehabad, Hissar, Jaunpur etc. Content Guidelines During the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq, the characteristics of Tughlaq architecture, the real reclining walls, were abandoned completely. Tughlaq is a term still used in contemporary times to tease someone when they do something illogical or counter-intuitive. In his time uncared stones were used in large quantity as a result of which buildings lack beauty of architecture. He ruled from 1324 to 1351 AD. "[7] Barani has written that Tughluq wanted the traditions of the nubuwwah to be followed in his kingdom. It was during his reign that the Sultanate of Delhi collapsed by twofold resistance. Organised better postal system [10], In 1333, Muhammad bin Tughluq led the Qarachil expedition to the Kullu-Kangra region of modern-day Himachal Pradesh in India. He ruled up to 1351. He remained at Tughluqabad for forty days and then entered Delhi […] Achievements of Firoz Shah Firoz Shah Tughlaq worked majorly for development of infrastructure in his kingdom. [14] Ibn Battuta mentions that the king of China (the Yuan Emperor) had sent an embassy to Muhammad for reconstruction of a sacked temple at Sambhal. He constructed many Cities, Palaces, Madrasas, Mosques, Hospitals, Tombs, Bridges, Canals, and Baths. Records show that the use of token currency has stopped in 1333 as Ibn Battuta who came to Delhi in 1334 and wrote a journal made no mention of this currency. Tughluq was a strict Muslim, maintaining his five prayers during a day, used to fast in Ramadan. While on his way to suppress the rebellion, there was an outbreak of bubonic plague at Bidar due to which Tughluq himself became ill, and many of his soldiers died. One was from Rajputs led by Hammir Singh of Mewar,[18] and the other from Harihara and Bukka of South India. The courtyard of this mosque is not kept open but is divided into four parts, all connected with main gateway. in Indian history. It is believed that the general public of Delhi was not in favor of shifting the base to Daulatabad. Supressed the rebellions in the distant provinces with strong hand and resorted the peace and order 3. The son and successor of the Turk Ghiyas-ud-din (reigned 1321-1325), the founder of the Tughluq dynasty that replaced Khilji rule in Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq displayed an extraordinary capacity for classical learning and military leadership. TOS Daulatabad was also situated at a central place so the administration of both the north and the south could be possible. Muhammad bin Tughlaq realized the importance of a strong and powerful army to strengthen and secure the position of the ruler. In 1330, after his failed expedition to Deogiri, he issued token currency; that is coins of brass and copper were minted whose value was equal to that of gold and silver coins. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. In the rural areas, officials like the muqaddams paid the revenue in brass and copper coins and also used the same coins to purchase arms and horses. First ruler to participate in Holi. also contributed to the downfall of the Turkish Sultanate of Delhi. (if) Madrasa in Hauz-i-Khas and Kotla Firozshah: The best specimen of his buildings is the Madrasa in Hauz-i-Khas and Kotla Firozshah. Muhammad ibn Tughluq, 14th century sultan of the Tughluq dynasty who extended the rule of the Delhi sultanate over most of the Indian subcontinent. Explanation: Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He needed additional revenue to increase military resources. [56] In the Kali Masjid there are two storeys. (if) Madrasa in Hauz-i-Khas and Kotla Firozshah: The best specimen of his buildings is the Madrasa in Hauz-i-Khas and Kotla Firozshah. is a free service that lets you to preserve your original articles for eternity. Achievements of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq 1. Their accounts helped the audit in the office of the wazir. [8], Muhammad bin Tughluq was born to Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, who was in turn the son of a Turkic slave father and a Hindu Indian mother, and was the founder of the Tughluq dynasty after taking control of the Delhi Sultanate. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Juna khan took up the title of muhammad Tughluq. During the first two years of his reign, Muhammad Tughlaq founded the small Fortress of Adilabad. Ghiyas-ud-Din-Tughluq was succeeded by his son prince Juna khan. Prithvi Chand II of the Hindu Katoch kingdom of Kangra defeated the army of Muhammad bin Tughluq which was not able to fight in the hills. If not for Tughlaq's creation of a Muslim elite at Daulatabad, there would have been no stable Muslim power like the Bahmani empire to check the rising power of the Hindu Vijayanagaris. The envoys were however denied with the statement that only those living in a Muslim territory who paid the jizya could be permitted to restore a temple. Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Muhammad bin Tughluq died in 1351 on his way to Thatta, Sindh while he was campaigning in Sindh against Taghi, a Turkish slave tribe. [additional citation(s) needed] Critics have called him hasty in nature, owing to most of his experiments failing due to lack of preparation. He also repaired the Qutub Minar which had been damaged by an earthquake. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. [11] However, Muhammad bin Tughluq was also known for his tolerance to other religions, several historians mention that the Sultan honoured the Jain monk Jinaprabha Suri during the year 1328. It is a square building whose walls is very strong and is decorated with various flowers, leaves etc. The token currency had inscriptions in Persian and Arabic marking the use of new coins instead of the royal seal and so the citizens could not distinguish between the official and the forged coins. Basically it was the first Indian currency, coined in brass or copper and granted by a gold and silver reserve in the sultanate treasury. 5. Historians like Badauni and Ferishta wrote that Tughluq originally wanted to cross the Himalayas and invade China. (iii) Mosques: The peculiar characteristic of Firoz Shah Tughlaq’s reign was visible in the new style adopted in the construction of mosques. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1361A.D.) [22], There are conflicting views expressed by historians on his religious tolerance, while the visitors Ibn Batuta, Nunez and Firistha mention that Muhammed Bin Tughlaq showed intolerance to other religions[11] on the contrary, Peter Jackson mentions that Muhammed was the only Sultan who participated in Hindu festivities. Critics called him master of opposite or Wisest fool or Wonder of creation. In other words we can also say that Adilabad was merely an outwork of the larger city of Tughlaqabad and was almost identical with it in style. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq … He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty. Even though the citizens migrated, they showed dissent. Barani has written that Tughluq took no step to check the ability of the soldiers or the brand of horses. He died in an accident and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq. Fearing that the sultanate's northern borders were exposed to attacks, in 1335, he decided to shift the capital back to Delhi, allowing the citizens to return to their previous city. [5] He is also known for wild policy swings. [15][unreliable source?]. Kala Masjid is in Shahjahanabad, famous for its strength, domed roof and four ‘Burz’ on its four corners. He began his career as a soldier. Grants were also given by Tughluq to the immigrants. Among the many mosques constructed during his reign main are: Kali Masjid, Khidki Masjid, Begumpuri Masjid, Kala Masjid etc. Firoze Shah’s economic reforms improved agricultural production and made the peasants prosperous and happy. The buildings of this period exhibit a vacuum of thoughts. [12][13] Peter Jackson mentions that Muhammad was the only Sultan who participated in Hindu festivities. The Muhammadan Period, Encyclopædia Britannica – Muhammad ibn Tughluq, "Regal glorification for Lord Ranganatha at Srirangam",, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from September 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from December 2016, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Two Sanskrit inscriptions dated 1327 and 1328 A.D. confirm this view and establish the prosperity of the Hindus of Delhi and its vicinity at that time. [11] another inhuman eccentricity is that decided to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri, which are 600 miles apart, he then ordered the people to move back to Delhi. They were paid in one year advance, and after being kept idle for one year, Tughluq found it difficult to pay them. Firoz Tughlaq Jauna Khan ascended the throne in 1325 AD with the title of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. Thousands of people including women and children died during the journey. Chandragupta Ma... Ashoka. Nearly all his 10,000 soldiers perished and were forced to retreat.[10]. During the time Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq a huge quantity of coins was required for various transactions and there was a dearth of gold and silver coins in the country. In his reign, he conquered Warangal (in present-day Telangana, India) Malabar and Madurai (Tamil Nadu, India), and areas up to the modern day southern tip of the Indian state of Karnataka. 3. It has a huge and strong main gateway where probably city guards lived. [25] He was famous because whenever a gift was bestowed upon him, he would give gifts worth three times the value to show his stature. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Muhammad ibn Tughluq | Biography, History, & Policies", "Muhammad bin Tughlaq: The Sultan of Swing", "Biography of Muhammad-Bin-Tughluq (1325-1351)", "15. Muhammad Tughluq in the beginning of his reign increased taxation in the Doab; on this measure of the Sultan Dr. AL Srivastava wrote that the Sultan desired to raise the revenue by five to ten percentonly and that too not by house-tax and grazing tax. is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Firuz Shah Tughlaq had claimed that before his rule, idol-temples had been permitted to be rebuilt contrary to the Sharia.[23]. In other words we can say that ‘Jahan Panah’ was made by linking up the walls of Old Delhi with those of Siri. Some of the ruins of this city can be seen even today. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, who ruled from Delhi in the fourteenth century, was a man of many dimensions. Historian Ishwari Prasad writes that different coins of different shapes and sizes were produced by his mints which lacked the artistic perfection of design and finish. Muhammad bin Tughlaq is known by the names of crazy, eccentric, blood-pimping etc. [6] Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. He was born in Multan. ADVERTISEMENTS: The below mentioned article provides a biography of Muhammad Bin Tughluq. Disclaimer He was a profound scholar of Persian, a penetrating critic, a litterateur of repute. Barani had also written that the sultan's treasury had been exhausted by his action of giving rewards and gifts in gold. Muhammad bin Tughlaq was a bunch of paradoxes that proved hazardous for not only his own good as well as for the Delhi Sultanate. According to 19th Century CE British historian Stanley Lane-Poole, apparently courtesans had hailed Tughluq as a "man of knowledge" and had an interest in subjects like philosophy, medicine, mathematics, religion, Persian and Urdu/Hindustani poetry. Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din 2. While Rana Hammir Singh liberated the strategic Rajputana following the victory in Battle of Singoli in 1336,[19] Harihara and Bukka established a new empire called Vijayanagara Empire, by initially defeating and later ending Madurai Sultanate that was ruling a major part of South India on behalf of Delhi Sultanate, thereby reviving the prosperity of Sangam era in South India. While he retreated back to Daulatabad, Mabar and Dwarsamudra broke away from Tughluq's control. [4] Muhammad has been described as an "inhuman eccentric" with bizarre character by the accounts of visitors during his rule. His coronation ceremony was duly performed in the Red Palace of Balban. Preserving Your Articles for Eternity, Some of the Architectural Structures of the Bahmani Kingdom, Notes on the architectural achievements of Sayyid Dynasty, Notes on the architectural achievements of Lodhi Dynasty, Essay on the character and achievements of Muizzuddin Muhammad of Ghur, Controlling in Management # Meaning, Definition, Types, Process, Steps and Techniques. In his "Medieval India", "He was perfect in the humanities of his day, a keen student of Persian poetry.........a master of style, supremely eloquent in an age of rhetoric, a philosopher trained in Logic and Greek metaphysics, with whom scholars feared to argue, a mathematician and lover of science. [20] Though Sultan dynasties that arose after Tughluq campaigned outside Delhi all ruled northern India stretching into modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan. First sultan who visited the tomb of Muinuddin Chisti at Ajmer. His achievements include: (i) He annexed several kingdoms around his land/territories. Muhammad bin Tughlaq ruled over the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent and the Deccan from 1325 to 1351 AD. He was a profound scholar of Persian, a penetrating critic, a litterateur of repute. However the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq was remarkable from the point of view of the number of buildings. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq’s token currency failed because the token currency was made of copper and brass and had equal value as silver and gold coins. Provisions for food and water were also made available at the stations. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was interested in Persian poetry, mathematics, medicine, and astronomy and All facilities were provided for those who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. In it there is an artistic use of marble as well. He was deeply read in … (iii) He shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad. This also disrupted trade and commerce. After the death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi in February, 1325 A.D. Muhammad bin tughlaq's Reforms:- He tried to introduce many administrative reforms.But most of these fails due to his impatience and lack of judgement. Though he is credited with constructing many buildings but he sacrificed standard for numbers. Muhammad bin Tughlaq had received excellent military training. [7] Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. It was situated near Tughlaqabad. However, according to Barani, the taxation was raised by ten to twenty times more, while Gardner Brown said that the rise in taxation was normal. He was a great In 1325 A.D. Junakhan, the crown prince sworn the title Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. In the conquered territories, Tughluq created a new set of revenue officials to assess the financial aspects of the area. Several other south Indian rulers like Musunuri Kaapaaneedu, etc. (ii) He defeated the Mongols, who attacked the Delhi Sultanate. Historians Shams-i-Siraj gives a long list of buildings of Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq. [10] The new capital was divided into wards called mohalla with separate quarters for different people like soldiers, poets, judges, nobles. Shady trees were planted on both sides of the road; he set up halting stations at an interval of two miles. There was also a double-storied bridge of seven spans, with subsidiary arches and a tower at each end, which served as a regulator for drawing off the waters of a lake inside the walls. Mohammad Bin Tughlaq Jauna Khan ascended the throne in 1325 AD with the title of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. Khidki Masjid and Begampuri Masjid are in Jahanpanah. [10], While most of the Medieval historians, including Barani and Ibn Battuta, tend to have implied that Delhi was entirely emptied (as is famously mentioned by Barani that not a dog or cat was left), it is generally believed that this is just an exaggeration. MOHAMMAD BIN TUGHLUQ 1. A well-read scholar of the arts, theology, and philosophy, a brilliant calligraphist, a mystic, as well as a poet, it is the 'madness' that earned him the epithet 'Mad Muhammad', that Karnad explores in the play. Copyright. Towards the end of Firoz Shah Tughlaq’s reign was constructed the Tomb of Saint Kabruddin Aulia in the style of Tomb of Gayasuddin Tughlaq with emphasis being placed on decoration as well. He built schools, hospitals, river canals, reservoirs, rest houses among other things. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq was one of the most remarkable and interesting ruler of the Tughlaq dynasty. Tughluq established a khanqah at each of the stations where at least one sufi saint was stationed. In the conquered territories, Tughluq created a new set of revenue officials to assess the financial aspects of the area. [24] Even though he did not believe in mysticism, Chandra states that he respected the Sufi saints, which is evident from the fact of his building of the mausoleum of the saint Nizamuddin Auliya at Nizamuddin Dargah. [citation needed], After the death of his father Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq, Muhammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi in February, 1325 A.D. This is how his empire collapsed. Three days after the death of his father either in February or March 1325 A.D., prince Jauna Khan alias Ulugh Khan ascended the throne of Delhi and was called Muhammad Bin Tughluq. In the process, many died on the road due to hunger and exhaustion. Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Turkic Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq just after the death of his father, declared himself as the Sultan in Tughlaqabad and after staying 40 days there, he proceeded to Delhi where he was greeted by the people as well as the Nobles. [21] As a result, the value of coins decreased, and, in the words of Satish Chandra, the coins became "as worthless as stones". 2. Among the buildings of Firoz Shah Tughlaq his tomb is also famous. Táríkh-i Fíroz Sháhí, of Ziauddin Barani", The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. (v) Tomb of Wazir Khan-i-Jahan Telangani: During the time of Firoz Shah Tughlaq the tomb of his Wazir, Khan-i-Jahan Telangani, was also constructed to the south of the Dargah of Nizamuddin Aulia. However, he faced local resistance in Himachal. As a result of misguided administrative actions and unexampled severity toward his opponents, he eventually lost his authority in the south. Partly with their help and partly from his own kingdom, Tughluq raised an army of possibly up to 370,000 soldiers in 1329. By around the same year, Tughluq summoned all the slaves, nobles, servants, ulema, sufis to the new capital. In spite of high qualification and knowledge, Sultan Muhamad-bin- Tughlaq suffered from certain qualities of hastiness and impatience that is why many of his experiments failed and he has been called an ill starred idealist. It was in this way that the suburbs which had grown up between them were enclosed. [16], In 1334 there was a rebellion in Mabar. This was followed by a revolt in Bengal. Notes on the architectural achievements of Muhammad Tughlaq. To add to Tughluq's woes, his own generals rebelled against him. He is said to be a man of high moral character and led an austere life like his father. [3] Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Reintroduced the food laws of Ala-ud-Din 2. [14], In 1327, Tughluq ordered to move his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (in present-day Maharashtra) in the Deccan region of India. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Historian Ziauddin Barani felt that this step was taken by Tughluq as he wanted to annex all the inhabited areas of the world for which a treasury was required to pay the army. Besides, it is believed that only the powerful and nobility suffered hardships if any. This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 12:14. Muhammad succeeded to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Our mission is to liberate knowledge. [9] His mother was known by the title Makhduma-i-Jahan, who was known for being a philanthropist, having founded many hospitals. In the sultans of Delhi Sultanate, Muhammad bin … Though Farishta might not be 100% accurate, yet it cannot be denied that he constructed many beautiful buildings. [56] [82] The Tughlaq's had attempted to manage their expanded empire by appointing family members and Muslim aristocracy as na'ib (نائب) of Iqta' (farming provinces, اقطاع) under contract. [note 1] However, at the time of Tughluq, both of the dynasties were on the downfall, with conditions in Transoxiana unstable after the death of Tarmashirin. He was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. Privacy Policy Achievements of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq 1. [7], Although this decision was unpopular among the Muslim elite, one impact of this decision was that Islamic rule in Deccan lasted centuries longer than the Delhi's own unstable authority over the south. The Tughlaq dynasty experienced many revolts by Muslim nobility, particularly during Muhammad bin Tughlaq but also during other rulers such as Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Muhammad bin Tughluq (also Prince Fakhr Malik Jauna Khan, Ulugh Khan; died 20 March 1351) was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. Because of being orthodox he did not take the help of Hindu Builders, still even the Muslim Artisans could not totally ignore the local style being born and brought up in that atmosphere. Whatever might be the fact about the amount of percentage of raised taxes,it is quite certain that at a time when there had bee… The place of lavishness of Gayasuddin Architecture was now taken by a heavy building style in which crooked balconies, Jharoka Mandapa and Chhtaries (umbrellas) are used on a Hugh scale. [17], After the death of Genghis Khan, one line of his descendants, the Chagatai Khanate, ruled over Turkistan and Transoxiana and another branch of Hulagu Khan conquered present day Iran and Iraq. Akbar. Moreover, coins minted in Daulatabad around 1333, showed that Daulatabad was "the second capital". 4. [10][7] He was ambitious of annexing these kingdoms. 1.Transfer of Capital (1327): Muhammad bin Tughlaq wanted to make Devagiri (also known as Deogir) his second capital so that he might be able to control South India better. According to Farishta, Sultan Firoz Shah Tughlaq constructed 200 cities, 20 palaces, 30 schools, 30 mosques, 100 hospitals, 100 baths, 5 tombs, and 150 bridges.

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